co-processing of phosphate and paint sludge of acc madukkarai.
Due to economic prosperity and industrial growth, the management of generated waste poses a very serious threat to society from a health, safety and environmental perspective.
According to official records, the production rate of hazardous waste in the country is estimated to be about 4 million tons per year, and the production rate of urban solid waste (MSW)
About 40 million tons per year.
There\'s a lot
Hazardous waste from agricultural activities and industries generates approximately 0. 4 billion tons per year.
The management of these large quantities of waste requires appropriate measures and guidelines, both for the disposal of waste and for the use of waste at a cost. Co-
Processing means the use of waste materials as alternative fuels and raw materials in industrial processes (AFR)
Recycling energy and materials from them1].
Due to the high temperature and long residence time of cement kiln, all kinds of waste can be effectively treated without any harmful emissions. Co-
Treatment is a more eco-friendly and sustainable waste treatment method compared to land filling and incineration, since there will be no residue after treatment.
Purpose of Co-
The processing test is to prove that the kiln can
Treat hazardous waste in a safe and healthy manner.
The emission monitoring results of the test combustion form the basis to prove
For the authorities and other stakeholders associated with the event, disposal is an eco-friendly, effective waste disposal/recycling technology. The co-
The treatment test is carried out in three stages, I . E. processing, co-
Processing and post-cooperation
Processing to monitor kiln stack emissions before, during and after cooperation
Treatment of waste materials .
All relevant stakeholders will be informed of the trial in advance. During the co-
On June 29, 2008 of phosphate sludge waste from FordIndia private Co. , Ltd. was treated and burned at ACC Madukkarai cement plant, during the cooperation process, an experienced team of senior ACC officials and Ford India Private Limited representative was involved
Description of materials and methods plant, kiln and control system ACC Madukkarai Works, established in 1934, is a semi-wet process with 5 kilns, 1200 tons per day.
The single kiln based on the semi-wet process was used in 1989 with a capacity of 1500 pd.
Currently, the plant has a single kiln with a capacity of 2400 pd.
The factory is located in Coimbatore district, Tamil Nadu.
Two mines, maducalai and varayar, are stone sources for the plant and other major raw material components, including clay, sandstone, blue dust and bauxite [1 .
Flow chart of clinker production (
Intermediate products for cement production)
As shown in Figures 1 and 2. [
Figure 1 slightly][
In short, the cement production process of cement is made by heating the mixture of lime and clay materials to a temperature of about 1450oC.
In this process, partial melting occurs, forming a nodule of clinker.
After cooling, the clinker is mixed with a few percent of gypsum, and sometimes with other cement materials, grinding into fine powder--cement.
The schematic diagram of cement production process is as follows.
The main component of clinker is lime (CaO), silica(Si[O. sub. 2]), alumina ([Al. sub. 2][O. sub. 3])
And iron oxide ([Fe. sub. 2][O. sub. 3]).
The first stage of the cement industry production process is the quarrying of raw materials.
In order to obtain the correct composition of the raw material mixture, it is usually necessary to add a corrected component to the raw material being mined.
Examples of corrective materials are sand, bauxite and iron ore;
This makes up for the shortage of silica, alumina and iron oxide respectively. After pre-
The chemical balanced raw material mixture is mixed through the mill feeding system to a roller mill of 300 tons per hour.
Add hot gas from the kiln to dry the raw mixture to a humidity of less than 1%.
The dry material is then transported to the mixed silowhere for continuous Homogenization to ensure the correct composition of the raw material.
Clinker production is carried out in dry suspension
Pre-heated cement kilncalciner.
The kiln rotates at a speed of 2.
4 rounds per minute, 3 rounds.
75 m in diameter and 55 m in length.
It has a two-string preset Tower (
4 stages and 2 stages, respectively)
Production of about 2400 tons of intermediate product clinker-per day.
Clinker is cooled in the No. 20 grate cooler.
57 m long 2. 45 meter wide.
The maximum feeding capacity from the top to the second level cyclone is 60 tons of raw material per hour.
The main burner is Duflox, which usually burns 3 tons of coal per hour.
After the Clinkeration process, the material is sent to the cement plant to add mineral components such as fly ash and gypsum to the cement plant to produce Portland Pozzolona cement .
Feeding arrangements for waste raw materials feed systems installed for waste cooperatives
The processing consists of construction lifts with bucket, Hopper, belt conveyor, double baffle and gate closure.
The hoist lifts the scrap in the bag from the ground to the 2nd th floor of the preheater tower.
The capacity of the hoist is 3 tons.
The volume of the hoist bucket is 0. 4m3.
The material is removed from the bucket on the feeding platform.
The waste packed in the bag is then fed into the inlet via a variable speed belt conveyor.
A double flap damper was used to avoid false air entry.
Considering security considerations, a closed door is already included in the system.
Both the double flap damper and the closing gate are interlocked with kilnoperation to ensure safety when fighting back.
In order to keep the feed speed of the scrap, place a counter on the belt to check the quantity of the bagprocessed.
An owl is provided on the platform to signal the trained labor force to put the packed garbage in the bag and on the conveyor belt
Determine the frequency according to the set point set by the central control room.
Provide fire, temperature and pressure sensors at the chute to ensure the normal flow of materials and take into account [safety considerations]5]. Co-
Ford Motor Company is a company that produces and sells cars around the world.
Ford launched M/sFord India Private Limited in India in 1988.
It is one of the leading automakers in India.
Cars are made of Fusion, Fiesta, Mondeo and Endeavour with an annual production capacity of 1 thousand.
Ford India Private Limited produces paint sludge, phosphate sludge, chemical ETP sludge and oil cloth waste during the manufacturing process.
Ford authorized the Tamil Nadu Pollution Control Commission to dispose of the garbage.
Next, Ford\'s massive waste.
Table 1 shows the trial burning process conducted at ACC Madukkarai cement plant on June 29, 2008.
Ford has forwarded samples of phosphate sludge waste to ACCfor co-evaluation
Feasibility of processing.
In the R & D of ACC Co. , Ltd. located in Thane, the waste was analyzed.
The analysis results of phosphate sludge are attached.
According to the analysis, ACC confirmed that Ford can treat phosphate sludge waste through joint treatment
Cement kiln processing at ACC Madukkarai factory.
Ford India Private Limited received 43 copies of Ford\'s phosphate sludge waste.
32 tons of phosphate sludge waste for trial purposes.
The two trucks carried the whole material, bearing as shown in Table 2 below.
Ford India Pvt hazardous waste storage and disposal. Ltd.
Store phosphate sludge in HDPE bags (approx. weight 12. 5kg)
In Ford\'s hazardous waste warehouse.
The National Pollution Control Commission authorizes the transporter [to] ship the waste to the ACC Madukkarai plant6].
The temporary hazardous waste storage shed of ACC Madukkarai Works stores phosphate sludge in two containers (40 feet long)
With a ventilation system.
The board for preventive measures, safety signs and waste-specific workplace labeling for hazardous waste disposal is presented in a strategic location.
Dry and CO2 type--
Available near storagecontainer.
Risk assessment procedures (RAP)
The ACC safety team worked with the Ford India safety team to develop a safety manual for phosphate sludge before transporting waste from the Ford toMadukkarai plant.
RAP and workplace labels with phosphate sludge wastewater are attached.
Both containers are located at 150-
200 maway from bucket loading point.
Hazardous waste disposal and unloading operations at ACC Madukkarai cement plant are carried out by four personnel equipped with personal protective equipment in ACC Madukkarai.
These bags are handmade and stored at the designated location of the container.
Prior to the trial burn, workers and supervisors were trained in handling 21 and hazardous waste safety.
Relevant personnel were also trained in preventive measures, emergency measures, potential leakage and emission reduction, correct use and maintenance of PPEs.
Under the supervision of the AFR coordinator, the bags were stacked in containers.
At the time of feeding, the bag is loaded on the trolley and the material in the container is transported to the crane.
Standard operating procedures for waste materials the following are the standard operating procedures followed during theco-
Trial processing: 1.
Trucks loaded with Ford India Private Limited waste enter the ACC Madukkarai\'s premises through the weighing Bridge, where the weight is recoded.
The truck then moved to the temporary storage area. 2.
Relevant personnel (AFR coordinator)
Notified by the security department.
All lists related to the transport of waste are checked. 3.
The waste, in the presence of security guards, security officers, was removed from the truck with the help of the workers and kept separately in the warehouse container. 4.
The weight of the material is recorded in the log. 5.
Weigh the empty truck again to check the net weight of the material received. 22 6.
The net weight of the truck is also recorded in the log. 7. For co-
In the process of treatment, the waste material in the bag is put into the trolley (
Used exclusively for the transportation of hazardous waste)
With the help of labor, transport to the bottom of the pre-heater (
Bucket near construction lift)
Under the watchful eye of the guardand AFR coordinator. 8.
A separate register is retained to record the flow of waste materials. 9.
The waste is fed into the barrel and lifted to the second floor with a kiln inlet feeding device. 10.
Then the barrel is tilted towards the conveyor belt. 11.
Labor after receiving the signal from Hute (
Can control the frequency of hooter from CCR)
Place bags containing waste on the conveyor belt and outline the monitoring plan during cooperation
Common purpose of handling tests
The processing tests show that the kiln is able to co-process hazardous waste in an environment-friendly manner.
The emission monitoring result of the test combustion is to show co-
The waste disposal activities are addressed to the authorities and 23 other stakeholders. The co-
Phosphate sludge treatment Test of Ford India PvtLtd.
Conducted in June in three phases (namely, Pre Co-processing,Co-
Processing and post-cooperationprocessing)
According to the Holcim EMR guidelines.
Before the start of the test, the conventional fuel had a kiln stable period that lasted 24 hours.
Table 3 provides a list of emission parameters monitored at each stage of the trial.
Hourly samples of all raw materials (
Limestone, aluminium and iron ore)
Collect raw coal, kiln coal, calcin furnace coal, clinker and chemical sludge waste and make a composite sample every day.
Tables 4, 5 and 6 list the parameters analyzed in all of the above samples. Summary of Co-
Schedule for handling test plan co-
Table 7 shows tests for the treatment of Ford chemical ETP sludge waste at ACC Madukkarai cement plant. The co-
Processing test burns were performed in the presence of ACC, Ford and SGS delegates.
The burn Test team is mentioned below.
Results During cooperation and discussion process parameters
Handling trial during pre-trialprocessing, co-
Processing and post-cooperation
Trial burning treatment stage: * The average feed rate of the kiln is 158. 5, 156. 6 and 156. 6tons per hour.
* The average coal supply rate of Calcin furnace is 10. 34, 10. 4and 10.
61 tons per hour.
* The average coal feeding rate to the kiln main burner is 2. 81, 2. 74 and 2.
71 tons per hour.
During the cooperation period,
During the treatment test, some interference occurred during the process and was corrected by taking kilnstop pages.
During the investigation, it was found that these disturbances were not caused by waste.
But due to some other technical problems related to the process.
During the whole cooperation, the computer printed the hourly art map of the kiln part 3
Treatment test. [FIGURE 3. 1 OMITTED][FIGURE 3. 2 OMITTED][FIGURE 3. 3 OMITTED][FIGURE 3. 4 OMITTED][FIGURE 3. 5 OMITTED][FIGURE 3. 6 OMITTED][FIGURE 3. 7 OMITTED][FIGURE 3. 8 OMITTED][FIGURE 3. 9 OMITTED][FIGURE 3. 10 OMITTED][FIGURE 3. 11 OMITTED][FIGURE 3. 12 OMITTED][FIGURE 3. 13 OMITTED][FIGURE 3. 14 OMITTED][FIGURE 3. 15 OMITTED][FIGURE 3. 16 OMITTED][FIGURE 3. 17 OMITTED][FIGURE 3. 18 OMITTED]
The following parameters were monitored: 1.
Temperature of SLC container ([degrees]C)2.
Coal feed rate of SLC (tons per hour--TPH)3.
Feeding rate of kiln coal (tons per hour--TPH)4.
Kiln temperature ([degrees]C)5.
Kiln thermometer ([degrees]C)6. Kiln Speed (
Revolution every minute-RPM)7.
Inlet temperature of kiln exhaust fan ([degrees]C)8.
Air inlet of kiln exhaust fan (mmWC)9.
O2 pre-heater socket (%)10.
Water heater outlet CO (%)11.
Cyclone temperature at SLC bottom ([degrees]C)12.
Level 3 temperature ([degrees]C)13. Kiln Inlet O2 (%)14. Kiln Inlet CO (%)15.
Kiln master drive current (Ampere--Amp)16.
Chute temperature (AFR[degrees]C)17.
AFR chute water (mmWC)18.
Results of all the above monitoring parameters shown in the kiln feed chart3. 1-3. 18.
Sampling conditions during Co-
The processing test estimated sampling conditions and stacking parameters for MadukkaraiKiln 3 during the trial period, as shown in Table 9.
Emission monitoring results during Co-
Processing Detailed results of monitoring conducted during theco-trial
Processing trials are provided in the report submitted by SGS and are attached to the end of this report.
The results are summarized as follows.
It should be noted that these results are the average of the number of samples collected during the launch monitoring during the test.
Sampling Procedures for dioxin and furans--EPA Method number23 A--
The monitoring results of each stage of the test are summarized as follows. 4. [
Figure 4 slightly]
Sampling Procedures for total organic compounds--EPA Method number25 A--
Continuous measurement for 24 hours.
Smoke is sampled by a heating probe and passed through a hydrogen flame.
Organic compounds are ionised, and the ionization intensity is reflected as the ionization peak on the TOCanalyzer screen, and the TOC content is given in the peak area.
The average emission results for each stage of the test combustion are shown in the figure5. [
Figure 5 Slightly][
Figure 6 slightly]
Sampling Procedures for hydrogen chloride and fluorine--
An integrated sample is extracted from the water source and filtered through a heated probe into diluted sulfuric acid and diluted sodium hydroxide solutions that collect gas halides and halides respectively.
The substances collected by the filter include halogen salt, but are not recycled and analyzed on a regular basis.
Dissolved in an acidic solution to form chlorine (Cl-), bromide (Br-)Fluorine (F-)ions.
Halogen has a very low solubility in an acidic solution, and the proton is formed by hydrolysis through an alkaline solution (H+)
Halogen ion and secondary halogen acid (HClO or HBrO).
Add an excess of sodium Thio in an alkaline solution to ensure a reaction with the secondary halogen acid to form a second halogen ion, thus forming 2 halogen ions for each halogen gas molecule
Determination of halogen ions in separation solution by ion chromatography.
Hydrogen chloride and fluorine hydrogen were monitored at all three stages of the trial.
The monitoring results of each stage of the test are summarized in the figure. 6-7. [
Figure 7 Slightly][
Sampling Procedures for carbon monoxide, nitrogen, sulfur oxides and particulate matter-NOX, O2, CO2--
Excess air-USEPA MethodNo. 7 E--
Instrument method using quinmake make portable digital flue gas analyzer.
Orsat instruments are used for the determination of O2 and co2.
The flue is collected in the bladder and is allowed to pass through the KOH solution in order to absorb the CO2 present in the flue gas.
The flue gasis passes through the Coke aluminum solution again in order to observe O2 in the flue gas.
CO is analyzed by the flue gas analyzer because the detection limit is 0, so it cannot be determined by the above method. 2%(
1% = 10,000 ppm so determined by the flue gas analyzer). SO2--EPA Method number6 A/B-
Extract gas samples from sampling points in the stack.
SO2 in flue gas is absorbed in 6% of 50 ml H 2.
In any sulfuric acid mist, SO2 and sulfur dioxide, including these parts, are separated.
Measurement of SO2 fraction with barium-
Titanium titration method
Particulate matter--EPA Method number17--
Particulate matter is withdrawn iso-
Move from the source and collect on the glass.
A fiber filter that keeps the stack temperature.
Because of the collection of 1000 liters of flue gas, and make it through the thimble that we know the weight after drying.
After sampling, dry and weigh the thimble to find the percentage of PM.
The results are shown in the figure. 8.
Heavy metal sampling procedure-
Mercury and heavy metals-USEPA Method N. 29--
The measurement results of heavy metals, that is, arsenic, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, copper, mercury, manganese, nickel, lead, antimony, tin, cadmium, vanadium and zinc, are given in the table below.
The results show that emissions are within a given range of the guidelines.
Iso-extract stack sample
A kinetic study was conducted from the source, particle emissions were collected on probes and heating filters, and gas emissions were then collected in acidic aqueous solutions of hydrogen peroxide (
Analysis of all metals including mercury
And acidic aqueous solution of potassium permanganate (
Only forHg was analyzed).
The recovered sample is digested and the appropriate fraction of Mercury is analyzed by Cold Vapor Atomic Absorption (CVAAS)
Emission spectra of Sb, As, Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Pb, Mn, Ni, Tl (ICAP)
Or atomic absorption spectrum (AAS).
Atomic absorption spectrum of graphite furnace (GFAAS)
Used to analyze Sb, As, Cd, Co, Pb, Se, and Tl, if these elements require a greater analytical sensitivity than those obtained by ICAP.
If a sochooses method can be used to analyze all listed metals such as theresulting-
The detection limit of the stack method meets the goal of the test program.
Similarly, induced coupled plasma
Mass spectrometry (ICP-MS)
It can be used for the analysis of Sb, As, Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Pb, Mn, Ni and tl.
The results are shown in the figure. 9. [
Figure 9 omitted
Conclusion The goal of this project is to cooperate.
Processing trialto proves that cement kilns can work together
Disposal of hazardous waste in an irreversible and harmless mannere.
When conventional fuels are partially replaced by hazardous waste, there is no impact on emissions.
Hazardous waste, chemical ETP sludge, produced by Ford India Private Limited Chennai.
Ford India generates chemical ETP sludge from its manufacturing process, which is classified as hazardous sludge according to the HWM rules.
In June 26, 2008, ACC and Ford India conducted a co-processing test together.
The experimental chemical ETP sludge is carried out in three stages, namely preco-processing, co-
Processing and post-cooperationprocessing.
Launch monitoring was carried out by SGS Ltd. Gurgaon.
SGS is a third-party monitoring organization certified by CPCB and ISO 17025.
The monitoring results are summarized in Table 10 below, where co-
Processing and mailing
Compared to baseline measurements, the treatment process was compared to the CPCB specification of common hazardous waste incinerators.
Pcb guidelines for common hazardous waste incinerators provide emission standards for each parameter in the waste incineration process.
The following figure compares these CPCB specifications with incremental changes in emissions during and after co-
Disposal of waste.
The analysis results of the heap parameters show that the emission value is much lower than the standard set by CPCB for common hazardous waste incinerators.
The test results show that the discharge has nothing to do with the use of waste in the cement process.
During cement processing, the temperature in the kiln is required to be 1400-
1450oC, long stay 4-5 sec.
Such high temperature conditions ensure in co-
Disposal of waste.
The advantages of high temperature cement kiln are widely used in the world.
Processing is considered one of the most expensive products.
Provide effective, eco-friendly and feasible waste management technologies.
Thanks to the author for the staff of Ford India Private Limited, Chennai Industrial laboratory facility, and for the support of the Tamil Nadu Pollution Control Committee. References Gautam, S. P. , Bundela P. S. and Chawla, V. 2009, Co-
Coal is used in cement kilns to treat plastic waste.
Journal of Solid Waste Technology and Management.
Second International Conference on Solid Waste Technology and Management, March 15
Philadelphia, USA, 2009, 18S. A pp. 1173-1179. Gautam, S. P. , Bundela P. S.
And Chawla, V 2010, Co-
Treatment of Tp sludge and slag (
Nylon 6 tire line during production)in Cement Kiln. In: Proc.
International Conference on abusive technologies and hazardous waste burners: San Francisco, California, May 17-20. Bundela, P. S. Chakrawarty rice. and Gautam, S. P. 2010,Co-
The waste carbon treatment test was carried out at the Acc Wadi cement plant in Karnataka. American J. Environ. Sci. 6(4), 371-378. Bundela, P. S. Chakrawarty rice. and Gautam, S. P. 2010,Co-
Treatment test of sludge from Acc Wadi CementWorks Karnataka water treatment plant, International Journal of academic research. Vol. 2(6),65-72. Bundela, P. S. Chakrawarty rice. and Gautam, S. P. 2010,Co-
Processing test of ETP biosolids in ACC Wadi cement plantApplid Sci. 5(4),68-78. Bundela, P. S. , Kapoor, A. and Jain, R. K 2010, Co-
Treatment of lime sludge in cement kiln gelatin industry, EJEAFChe, 9 (9),1502-1506. Pushpendra S. Bundela (1)*, U. Parlikar (2)and S. P. Gautam (3)(1)
Regional Office of VijayNagar Jabalpur Central State Pollution Control Commission (M. P. )India (2)
ACC director of alternative fuels and raw materials, Mumbai, India (3)
Central Pollution Control Commission, New Delhi, India * Newsletter
Email: psbundela @ hotmail